Category: medbrains News

Anthony Lowe : Anesthesiologist

Published / by Harry Bigwood

6 December 2008

Nectar of the gods

Posted by alowe under: Uncategorized .

Perhaps the nectar of the gods, honey has been an important part of the lives of ordinary mortals since antiquity. It has been used over the millennia for many things other than simply food, for example, making medicines palatable, healing wounds, and smoothing hand lotions. However, it is the antiseptic properties of honey that are causing renewed interest among moderns.


S.E.E. Efem from Calabar, Nigeria, published an article (Br J Surg. 1988; 75:679-681) describing the remarkable power of honey to heal tropical sores, burns, diabetic ulcers, and bedsores, all of which were inhabited by bacteria: Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia coli, among many others.

The first study that quantitatively measured the efficacy of honey in reducing microbial skin colonization in a controlled trial has just been published, and the results are particularly important as antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a serious threat to public health. P.A.S. Kwakman et al from Amsterdam assessed the in vitro bactericidal activity of Revamil (Bfactory), a medical-grade honey produced under controlled conditions in closed greenhouses. In the first part of the study, microbroth dilution assays in batches of differing concentration were assessed against antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium, E coli, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella. The bacteria were killed within 24 hours by 10% to 40% (vol/vol) honey. They found only minor variations in the bactericidal activity of different batches of the honey.

They also assessed Revamil in the reduction of skin bacterial colonization on healthy volunteers. After 2 days of applications, skin colonization was reduced 100 fold, and positive skin cultures by 76%.

Clearly honey is a promising antimicrobial agent for prevention and treatment of even multi-drug-resistant bacteria in wounds and sores. » Orthopaedics » Website Design & Development

Published / by Harry Bigwood

The power and benefit of the internet is unquestionable. That said, we know that doctors are busy people who have difficulty finding time to take advantage of the web.

We can create a professional website to allow you to share your ideas and research with other doctors from all over the world or even a website to allow potential patients to find out more about you and your experience. In every website we build we add-on an easy to use Control Panel which will allows you to update and maintain the website, if you wish, by yourself.

So if you’re interested drop us a line at [email protected]

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Healthcare Compliance

Published / by Harry Bigwood

A brief overview of OSHA/tuberculosis relevancy in heathcare settings:

Tuberculosis (TB) – An infectious bacterial disease transmitted through the air that mainly affects the lungs.

With rare exceptions, TB is infectious only when it occurs in the lungs or larynx. TB that occurs elsewhere in the body is usually not infectious, unless the person also has TB in the lungs or larynx at the same time.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 2 billion persons (i.e., one third of the world’s population) are infected with M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis kills almost 1.6 million people per year.Although the 2007 TB rate (4.4 cases per 100,000 population) was the lowest recorded in the United States since national reporting began in 1953, the average annual decline has slowed since 2000. TB is now the second most common cause of death from infectious disease in the world after human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

Characteristics of persons exposed to M. tuberculosis that might affect the risk for infection are not well defined. The probability that a person who is exposed to M. tuberculosis will become infected depends primarily on the concentration of infectious droplet nuclei in the air and the duration of exposure to a person with infectious TB disease. The closer the proximity and the longer the duration of exposure, the higher the risk is for being infected. Additional hazards are now present because of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. MDR organisms are resistant to the drugs that are normally used to treat TB, such as Isoniazid and Rifampin. The course of treatment when treating MDR TB increases from 6 months to 18-24 months, and the cure rate decreases from nearly 100% to less than 60%. Mortality among patients with MDR-TB can be high.

TB disease in persons over the age of 65 constitutes a large proportion of TB cases in the United States. Many of these individuals have latent TB infection; however, with aging these individuals’ immune function starts to decline, placing them at increased risk of developing active TB disease, and employees in long-term care facilities at risk of occupational exposure to TB. Nursing homes or long-term care facilities for the elderly have been identified as having a high-risk situation for the transmission of TB. The degree of risk of occupational exposure of a worker to TB will vary based on a number of factors.

OSHA withdrew its 1997 proposed standard on Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis because it is unlikely to result in a meaningful reduction of disease transmission caused by contact with the most significant remaining source of occupational risk: exposure to individuals with undiagnosed and unsuspected TB.

Although OSHA has no standard for TB Infection Control, it will enforce the “General Duty Clause” in situations where employers’ failure to implement available precautions exposes workers to the hazard of TB infection. Created under the Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970, the General Duty Clause can be thought as an employer’s general responsibility to ensure the safety of all its employees and states: “Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm & each employee shall comply with the occupational safety & health standards and all rules, regulations and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.” Additionally, OSHA requires employers with employee exposure to TB must comply with certain requirements including: 1910.134 – Respiratory Protection, 1910.145 – Accident Prevention Signs and Tags, and 1904 – Recordkeeping.

Under the General Duty Clause, OSHA will issue citations to employers with employees working in one of the workplaces where the CDC has identified workers as having a higher incidence of TB infection than the general population, when the employees are not provided appropriate protection and who have exposure as defined below:

Exposure to the exhaled air of an individual with suspected or confirmed pulmonary TB disease,


Employee exposure without appropriate protection to a high hazard procedure performed on an individual with suspected or confirmed infectious TB disease and which has the potential to generate infectious airborne droplet nuclei.

Furthermore: OSHA will issue citations under the “General Duty Clause” in cases where the following procedures are not followed:

Periodic Evaluations: TB skin testing shall be conducted every three (3) months for workers in high risk categories, every six (6) months for workers in intermediate risk categories, and annually for low risk personnel.  The CDC has defined the criteria for high, intermediate, and low risk categories.

When working with TB potential hazards, OSHA recommends the prompt implementation of early screening procedures, and staff training to help them identify potentially infectious individuals, which will allow for early identification of patients with infectious TB and the initiations of appropriate controls before occupational exposure occurs to staff and other patients.

OSHA encourages employers to follow the guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE) to minimize the potential of TB transmission.

Should TB exposure occur, OSHA Directive CPL 2.106 states individuals with suspected or confirmed infectious TB disease must be placed in a respiratory acid-fast bacilli (AFB) isolation room. High hazard procedures on individuals with suspected or confirmed infectious TB disease must be performed in AFB treatment rooms, AFB isolation rooms, booths, and/or hoods. (AFB isolation refers to a negative pressure room or an area that exhausts room air directly outside or through HEPA filters if recirculation is unavoidable).

OSHA requires all healthcare settings establish a TB infection control program designed to ensure prompt detection, airborne precautions, and treatment of persons who have suspected or confirmed TB disease.

Fundamentals of Effective TB Infection Control:

Administrative Controls

Environmental Controls

Respiratory-Protection Controls

For more information on Tuberculosis & OSHA feel free to email OSHA Optics, LLC at:

[email protected]

For information on OSHA’s mandated annual training requirements for healthcare workers, we encourage you to visit OSHA Optics, LLC’s website at: » Orthopaedics » podcasts

Published / by Harry Bigwood

If you want to upload your favourite audio files and integrate them into your posts, then it’s never been easier. medbrains has podcasting already built in and at no extra cost (unlike other blog hosts).

Just upload your media files and place them into your post…we’ll do the rest!

And remember, we give you 3GB of storage space, so you can upload your multimedia files without having to worry about running out of space! Why not listen to what our users think about this?!

baby_loughing » Orthopaedics » FAQ

Published / by Harry Bigwood

The medbrains network is, essentially, an enormous journal in which any registered user may write an article on his own personal website (blog). One of the beauties of medbrains articles is that they can easily incorporate images, videos and even presentations, making it possible to communicate complex concepts much easier than through traditional mediums.

Our entire website is regularly indexed by web search engines such as Google and so can the content of your articles can show up in Google searches. It is also possible to attach comments to an article thereby stimulating discussion and allowing readers to easily ask the author questions.

Upon registration, each medbrains user selects the medical speciality and language in which he/she will write in. We then organize the articles within our site based this information and through our Network Homepage allow users to see the most popular articles that in the medical speciality and languages that they have chosen.

The only way to decide this is by signing up and trying for yourself. It will take you about 30 minutes to get up and running, and if you follow one of our tutorials and you’ll make things allot simpler for yourself than by going it alone.

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Infectious Diseases

Published / by Harry Bigwood

A brief overview of OSHA/tuberculosis relevancy in heathcare settings: Tuberculosis (TB) – An infectious bacterial disease transmitted through the air that mainly affects the lungs. With rare exceptions, TB is infectious only when it occurs in the lungs or larynx. TB that occurs elsewhere in the body is usually not infectious, unless the person also has TB in the lungs or larynx at the same time. Accordi… read more

Bloodborne Pathogens means pathogenic microorganisms that may be present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This article will address HBV exclusively. Hepatitis B is a potentially serious form of liver inflammation due to infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). … read more

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